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Atlas of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for screening, triage, and assessment for treatment

Interpretation of VIA Ė Suspicious of invasive cancer

  

The following observations after application of acetic acid are reported as suspicious of invasive cancer:

Thick, dense large acetowhite area: Cervical cancers can present as dense acetowhite areas, often raised from the surface and occupying a large area on the surface of the cervix. The lesion may bleed easily on contact.





Irregular surface: Surface irregularity of the acetowhite area, with or without contact bleeding, is suggestive of cervical cancer.




Obvious growth: The presence of a frank growth on the cervix indicates cervical cancer.




Necrosis: A necrotic or ulcerated area on the cervix is suspicious of invasive cervical cancer. Dense acetowhite areas may be visible wherever the cervical epithelium is intact.




Ulceration: The entire cervix may be replaced by an ulcerated area, with or without contact bleeding.




Note: Invasive cancer may not turn white after application of acetic acid, because the entire surface epithelium may be peeled off as a result of the underlying growth.

























  


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