VIA procedure Ė Examination before application of acetic acid Ė Normal findings on speculum examination Ė Ectropion
Ectropion is visible as a large bright red patch on the ectocervix around the external os. The minute finger-like projections of the villi of the columnar epithelium give it a granular, velvet-like surface. The SCJ is pushed out on the ectocervix and is visible at a variable distance from the external os.
In a very large ectropion, the entire visible part of the cervix appears red and the columnar epithelium occupies almost the entire ectocervix. The SCJ is partially visible at the periphery of the ectropion, sometimes with considerable difficulty.
In the presence of infection or inflammation, the exposed columnar epithelium of an ectropion looks congested, often with visible bleeding points on the surface.
The next few sections discuss the abnormalities detected on speculum examination.