Atlas of Colposcopy: Principles and Practice

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Treatment by cold-knife conization Side-effects and complications  

The side-effects and complications of cold-knife conization are similar to those of LLETZ, although the frequency and intensity of these tend to be much higher with cold-knife conization.

The side-effects and complications are:
  • Primary haemorrhage during or immediately after surgery
  • Secondary haemorrhage due to postoperative infection
  • Postoperative infection characterized by foul-smelling vaginal discharge, bleeding, and lower abdominal pain with or without fever
  • Cervical stenosis
  • Cervical incompetence, leading to second-trimester miscarriages in subsequent pregnancies
  • Premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour in subsequent pregnancies.

The post-treatment advice and follow-up protocols for cold-knife conization are the same as those for LLETZ.

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