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A digital manual for the early diagnosis of oral neoplasia

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Figure 1: Homogeneous leukoplakia on the dorsum and left lateral margin of the tongue, showing malignant transformation. Note the raised, erythematous posterior margin of the white plaque (arrows). Well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was established on histopathological examination.
Figure 2: Homogeneous leukoplakia on the left buccal mucosa with an exophytic growth arising posteriorly. Biopsy from the growth revealed verrucous carcinoma.
Figure 3: Malignant transformation (arrow) in a patient with homogeneous leukoplakia on the left lateral border of the tongue.
Figure 4: Malignant transformation (arrow) in a patient with homogeneous leukoplakia on the right lateral border of the tongue.
Figure 5: Homogeneous leukoplakia (arrow), with a proliferative growth in the center of the lesion (red arrow) that revealed verrucous carcinoma on biopsy.
Figure 6: Ulcerated leukoplakia on left lateral border of the tongue with nodular areas that showed squamous cell carcinoma on histopathological examination.
Figure 7: Nodular leukoplakia with malignant transformation (arrow) on the left lateral border of the tongue.
Figure 8: Malignant transformation in a nodular leukoplakia. Note the exophytic growth (arrows) and the nodularity in the lesion on the left commissure.
Figure 9: Nodular leukoplakia with malignant transformation. Note the pin head-sized nodules scattered on an erythematous base. The margins of the lesion are diffuse, and the granular area (arrow) seen anteriorly is clinically suspicious of malignancy. Histopathological examination of the granular area was suggestive of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Figure 10: Verrucous leukoplakia with malignant transformation. Note the extensive, keratotic lesion on the left buccal mucosa with an anterior proliferative growth in the region of the lower lip (arrow). Histopathological examination revealed verrucous carcinoma.
Figure 11: Erythroplakia with malignant transformation. Note the 2x1 cm red velvety lesion (yellow arrow) on the left side of the lower labial mucosa with an area of crust formation extending to the vermilion border (red arrow), which on histopathological examination revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Figure 12: Malignant transformation in a red, velvety erythroplakia on the right buccal mucosa. Note the ulceration in the sulcus adjacent to the hard palate which is suggestive of malignant transformation.
Figure 13: Oral submucous fibrosis with malignant growth on the left side of the anterior part of the oral tongue.
Figure 14: Oral submucous fibrosis with malignant transformation on the dorsum of the tongue (red arrows).
Figure 15: Oral submucous fibrosis with a nodular, proliferative growth on the anterior aspect of the dorsum of the tongue. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was established on histopathological examination.
Figure 16: Oral submucous fibrosis with an exophytic, proliferative growth on the right buccal mucosa which proved to be squamous cell carcinoma on histopathological examination.
Figure 17: Erosive lichen planus with malignant transformation (arrow) on the right lateral margin of the tongue surrounded by white striae.
Figure 18: Erosive lichen planus with malignant transformation. Note the 2x2 cm proliferative growth (arrow) arising posterior to the erosive lichen planus on the right lateral border of the tongue.
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