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Sideropenic dysphagia (Paterson-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome) affects middle-aged women, with iron deficiency being the underlying cause  Pindborg JJ, Reichart PA, Smith CJ, van der Waal I, (1997). World Health Organisation International Histological Classification of Tumours.Histological Typing of Cancer and Precancer of the Oral Mucosa. 2 ed. Berlin: Springer.. The oral and oropharyngeal mucosa appear as being shiny, red and atrophic. Leukoplakia and multiple cancer may develop in the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa, presumably due to the epithelial atrophy seen among such patients.

Figure 1: Sideropenic dysphagia. Iron deficiency anaemia with depapillated tongue, depigmentation of the upper lip and epithelial erosion of the lower lip.
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