A digital manual for the early diagnosis of oral neoplasia
Odontogenic tumours and tumour-like lesions
Odontogenic lesions are those that arise from the tooth-forming apparatus. This constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases ranging from non-neoplastic tissue proliferation to benign and malignant tumours. These lesions can be intra- or extra-osseous. The extra-osseous lesions occur in the tooth-bearing mucosa. The etiology is unknown, and most of them arise de novo. These lesions have relatively common clinical and radiological features. Combining plain radiograph findings with CT and MR imaging can improve the accuracy of diagnosis. CT demonstrates well the degree of bone resorption, osteosclerosis, cortical bone swelling, destruction and calcification. MR imaging is effective in differentiating between tumours and cysts, evaluating infiltration of malignant tumours in the jawbone and surrounding soft tissues, and detecting bone marrow changes in the jaw. The difference between tumours and cysts can be achieved by contrast-enhanced studies. A precise diagnosis of these lesions, however, can only be made by an accurate histopathological study. Some of the common odontogenic lesions are described here.