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  Glossary Abbreviations


APC APC is a gene chromosone 5
CT Computed tomography
ECS Extracapsular spread
FNAC Fine needle aspiration cytology
FNCB Fine needle cutting biopsy
HLP Homogeneous leukoplakia
HPV Human papilloma virus
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
MRI Magnetic resonance image
OLP Oral lichen planus
OLR Oral lichenoid reaction
OSF Oral submucous fibrosis
PA Posteroanterior view
PNS Paranasal sinus view
TNM Tumour node metastasis
TOCS Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study
TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone
UICC International Union Against Cancer
ULP Ulcerated leukoplakia
WHO World Health Organization



A digital manual for the early diagnosis of oral neoplasia, edited by Ramadas K., Lucas E., Thomas G., Mathew B., Balan A., Thara S., Sankaranarayanan R.



International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

In collaboration with:
Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, India (RCC)

ISBN: 978 92 832 2444 0



And endorsed by:

Association for International Cancer Research (AICR)


International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR)


International Union against Cancer (UICC)


World Health Organization - Regional Office for Africa (WHO/AFRO)

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