Cervical stenosis may be diagnosed when a cotton swab (cotton bud) can not be inserted through the external os. Stenosis can be due to synechia after vaginal delivery or after any other surgical procedure on the cervix. Stenosis is also seen after postmenopausal atrophy. Cervical stenosis is a complication of the large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) procedure (seen in 2–3% of cases) used to treat cervical precancerous lesions.
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