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Pyogenic granuloma is an inflammatory hyperplasia due to various stimuli such as trauma or local irritation. They arise most frequently on the gingiva, but may also be found on lips, tongue and buccal mucosa. The lesion can be sessile or pedunculated. The surface may be smooth, lobulated or warty and is painless and soft in consistency. The surface is commonly ulcerated. The lesion may bleed on slight trauma. Depending on the vascularity, pyogenic granuloma can be deep red to reddish purple in colour.

Pregnancy tumour is a lesion identical to pyogenic granuloma of gingiva occurring during pregnancy. It may or may not regress after delivery. It frequently recurs following surgical removal during pregnancy.

The diagnosis is often clinical, though, in case of clinical suspicion, a biopsy is indicated. This may regress if the causative factor is removed, otherwise conservative surgery or laser excision is recommended.

Differential diagnosis:




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Figure 1: Pyogenic granuloma. Note the vascular, pedunculated growth in the anterior part of the hard palate along the midline.
Figure 2: Pyogenic granuloma. Note the 1.5x1.5 cm vascular sessile growth on the left side of hard palate in this 30–year-old man.
Figure 3: Pyogenic granuloma. Note the pedunculated 1x0.5 cm vascular growth in the interdental papillae of the left maxillary canine-premolar region.
Figure 4: Pyogenic granuloma of the mandibular gingiva.
Figure 5: Pyogenic granuloma. Note the broad based 1.5 X 1 cm growth of in the right maxillary gingiva of the central incisor region in this 50–year-old woman with poor oral hygiene.
Figure 6: Pyogenic granuloma on the dorsum of the tongue.
Figure 7: Pyogenic granuloma on the dorsum of the tongue.
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